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Testing Basics
What are 5 common solutions to software development problems?
Solid requirements - clear, complete, detailed, cohesive, attainable, testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements.

Realistic schedules - allow adequate time for planning, design, testing, bug fixing, re-testing, changes, and documentation; personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out.

Adequate testing - start testing early on, re-test after fixes or changes, plan for adequate time for testing and bug fixing.

Stick to initial requirements as much as possible - be prepared to defend against changes and additions once development has begun, and be prepared to explain consequences. If changes are necessary, they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. If possible, use rapid prototyping during the design phase so that customers can see what to expect. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize changes later on.

Communication - require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate; make extensive use of group communication tools - e-mail, groupware, networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools, intranet capabilities, etc.; insure that documentation is available and up-to-date - preferably electronic, not paper; promote teamwork and cooperation; use prototypes early on so that customers’ expectations are clarified.
What is software quality?
Quality software is reasonably bug-free, delivered on time and within budget, meets requirements and/or expectations, and is maintainable. However, quality is obviously a subjective term. It will depend on who the ‘customer’ is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. A wide-angle view of the ‘customers’ of a software development project might include end-users, customer acceptance testers, customer contract officers, customer management, the development organization’s management/accountants/testers/salespeople, future software maintenance engineers, stockholders, magazine columnists, etc. Each type of ‘customer’ will have their own slant on ‘quality’ - the accounting department might define quality in terms of profits while an end-user might define quality as user-friendly and bug-free.
What is good code?
'Good code’ is code that works, is bug free, and is readable and maintainable. Some organizations have coding ’standards’ that all developers are supposed to adhere to, but everyone has different ideas about what’s best, or what is too many or too few rules. There are also various theories and metrics, such as McCabe Complexity metrics. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. ‘Peer reviews’, ‘buddy checks’ code analysis tools, etc. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards.
What is good design?
‘Design’ could refer to many things, but often refers to ‘functional design’ or ‘internal design’. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear, understandable, easily modifiable, and maintainable; is robust with sufficient error handling and status logging capability; and works correctly when implemented. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements.

For programs that have a user interface, it’s often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help.

some common rules-of-thumb include:

the program should act in a way that least surprises the user

it should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit

the program shouldn’t let the users do something stupid without warning them.
What is the ’software life cycle’?
The life cycle begins when an application is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. It includes aspects such as initial concept, requirements analysis, functional design, internal design, documentation planning, test planning, coding, document preparation, integration, testing, maintenance, updates, retesting, phase-out, and other aspects.
What is testing process?
Verifying that an input data produce the expected output.
What is the difference between testing and debugging?
Big difference is that debugging is carry out by a programmer and the programmer fix the errors through debugging phase. Tester in no way fixes the errors, but rather find them and send to programmer.
What is the diversity between structural and functional testing?
Structural is a "white box" testing and base on the algorithm or code. Functional testing is a "black box" (behavioral) testing where the tester validate the functional requirements.
What is a bug? What types of bugs do you know?
Bug is an error during execution of the program. There are two kinds of bugs: syntax and logical.
Difference between testing and quality assurance (QA)?
When you use Serializable interface, your class is serialized automatically by default. But you can override writeObject() and readObject() two methods to control more complex object serailization process. When you use Externalizable interface, you have a complete control over your class's serialization process.
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