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Project Management
What is project management?
Applying knowledge, skills, tools, techniques in project and deliver project deliverables is a short definition of project management. It is basically managing project time, cost, and scope.
Is spending in IT projects constant through out the project?
Normally in initial stage of projects (requirement and design phase) the cost is very less (as you need maximum business analyst and architecture), but as the project proceeds cost factor starts increasing. The cost is maximum in coding phase (this is where you require programmers, project leads and project manager). Later when the project is in testing and acceptance phase cost is less, as we will need only one or two programmers for removing bugs, than the whole team.
Who is a stakeholder?
A stakeholder is anyone who has something to gain or lose as a result of the completion failure of this project or phase
Can you explain project life cycle?

There are five stages of any project initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closeout..
Are risk constant through out the project?
Risk is high at the start of projects, but by proper POC (Proof of concept), risk is brought in control. Good project managers always have proper risk mitigation plan at the start of project. As the project continues one by one, risks gets eliminated thus bringing down the risk.
Can you explain different software development life cycles?
SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) is overall process of developing information systems through multi stage process systems from investigation of initial requirements through analysis,design, implementation, and maintenance. The days are gone when one COBOL programmer used to analyze, test, and implement software systems. Systems have become complex, huge team members are involved, architects, analyst, programmers, testers, users etc. To manage this number of SDLC models have been created.

Water Fall Model

This is the oldest model. It has sequence of stages; output of one stage becomes input of other.Following are stages in Waterfall model:-

System Requirement: - This is initial stage of the project where end user requirements are gathered and documented.

System Design: - In this stage detail requirements, screen layout, business rules,process diagram, pseudo code, and other documentations are prepared. This is first step in technical phase.

Implementation: - Depending on the design document, actual code is written here.

Integration and Testing: - All pieces are brought together and tested. Bugs are removed in this phase.

Acceptance, Installation and Deployment: - This is final stage where software is put in production and runs actual business.

Maintenance: - This is least glamorous phase, which runs forever. Code Changes,correction, addition etc are done in this phase.

Waterfall is suited for low risk in areas of User Interface and performance requirements, but high risk in budget and schedule predictability and control. Waterfall assumes that all requirements can be specified in advance. But unfortunately, requirement grows and changes through various stages, so it needs feedback from one stage to other.

Spiral Model

Spiral Model removes the drawback of waterfall model, by providing emphasis to go back and reiterate earlier stages a number of times as project progresses. On broader level, it is a series of short waterfall cycles, each producing an early prototype representing a part of entire project. It also helps demonstrate a Proof of Concept at early software life cycle.

Build and Fix Model

This is the way free-lancers work Write some code and keep modifying it until the customer is happy. This approach can be quite dangerous and risky.

Rapid Prototyping Model

This model is also called as Rapid Application Development. The initial emphasis is on creating prototype that look and acts like the desired product. Prototype can be created by using tools,which is different from those used for final product. Once the prototype is approved, its discarded and real software development is started from scratch. The problem with this model is that sometimes the prototype moves ahead to become the final live product, which can be bad from design point of view. It is a effective model but can have higher costing than other models as you require programmers during the initial phase of the software cycle.

Incremental Model

In this model, we divide products into builds, where section of product are created and tested separately. Here errors are found in requirement phase itself, user feedback is taken for each stage and code is tested after it is written.
What is triple constraint triangle in project management?

Project Management triangle is depicted as Cost, Schedule and scope. These three aspects form the sides of triangle and the customer is the center point. As customer is always concerned about Cost, Scope and Schedule, so in order to get customer satisfaction project manager should deliver all scope in propose schedule and cost.

If we want to disturb any one of the legs then the other two legs get affected. Example if customer increases the scope then other two sides of the triangle also get affected a lot.
What is a project baseline?
It defines a logical closure of any deliverable or cycle. Example you have completed the requirement phase with sign off from the client on the requirement document. So you put a baseline and say that further any changes to this document are change request. Versioning of source code is one type of baseline.
What is effort variance?
Effort Variance = (Actual effort – Estimated Effort) / Estimated Effort.
How is normally a project management plan document organized?
PMP document forms the bible of a project. It has normally these sections:-

Project summary

Project organization hierarchy

WBS / Activity list to be performed with schedule

Work product identification (In short who will do what)

Project schedule (GANNT chart or PERT chart).

Estimated Cost and completion.

Project requirements.

Risk identification.

Configuration management section.

Quality section.

Action Item status.


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